A High Court in Zimbabwe has set aside a central bank
exchange control directive which had unilaterally ordered conversion of US
dollar bank account balances into Zimbabwe dollar balances at a fraction of their
At the time, the directive destroyed billions of dollars in
savings and wreaked havoc on pension funds.
In 2018, through Exchange Control Directive No. R120/2018,
the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe directed that all bank deposits made prior to
October 2018 be converted from then-existing United States Dollar balances into
Zimbabwe dollar balances, provided they were not deposited from offshore
Zimbabwe was, prior to October 2018, using a pegged exchange
rate of 1:1 between the US dollar and the local Zimbabwe dollar, then known as
the bond note.
The directive left individual and corporate depositors
smarting from exorbitant exchange losses.
Banks, on the other hand, benefited, as they had to pay out
much less than had been deposited after the local currency had significantly
lost its value.
Just before the October 2018 effective date, banks held
deposits of approximately US$9 billion.
‘Offensive to any sense of justice’
The case saw applicants Penelope Douglas Stone and Richard
Stuart Beattie suing a local bank for disabling any withdrawal of United States
dollars from an account which had held a balance of US$142 000 before the
exchange control directive.
They took their bank, Old Mutual-owned Central African
Building Society (CABS) to court, seeking to have the value of their savings repaid.
The second and third respondents were the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe and the
Minister of Finance respectively.
Judge Happious Zhou of the Harare High Court on Thursday
ruled in a scathing judgment that equality of value could not be arbitrarily or
“It is offensive to any sense of justice that a person
who holds money in a bank can wake up on any day to be told that his money
means something else different from what it has always been,” reads part
of the judgment.
Zhou noted that the applicant’s money was now likely worth
less than 4% of its value at prevailing official rates, “which this court
This could not be defended in a democratic society, he added,
and declared the directive null and void, saying the decision was not only
arbitrary and irrational, but failed the test of being reasonable.
The judgement went on to describe the exchange control
directive as illegal, unconstitutional and consequently invalid.
The court ordered CABS to pay the applicant US$142 000 with interest, or
transfer it into an account nominated by the applicants within seven days.